TS commonly has a number of other neurodevelopmental and neuropsychiatric conditions, some of which may present before and cause more impairment than the tics themselves. These are referred to as co-occurring conditions. The most common co-occurring conditions include the following:
- Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) — Problems with concentration, hyperactivity, and impulse control.
- Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder [or Behaviors] (OCD/OCB) — Repetitive, unwanted or intrusive thoughts and/or repetitive behaviors. There are many types of obsessive thoughts or urges, including excessive concerns about doing something “just right,” as well as intrusive religious, sexual, or aggressive thoughts. These thoughts lead to compulsions, which are unwanted behaviors that the individual feels he/she must perform over and over or in a certain way.
- Learning difficulties — Difficulties related to reading, writing (dysgraphia), mathematics, Executive Function Challenges, and/or processing information that are not related to general intelligence.
- Behavior problems — Aggression, rage, oppositional defiance or socially inappropriate acts (disinhibition).
- Anxiety — Excessive worries or fearfulness, including excessive shyness and separation anxiety.
- Mood problems — Periods of depression or elevated mood that result in a change in behavior or functioning, which may be significantly different from the child’s usual self.
- Social skills deficits and social functioning — Trouble developing social skills; maintaining social relationships with peers, family members, and other individuals; and acting in an age-appropriate manner.
- Sleeping problems — Difficulty falling or staying asleep, bedwetting, walking or talking while asleep.